Prothena Corporation plc
Prothena Corp plc (Form: 8-K, Received: 01/27/2014 16:28:49)

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 8-K

 

 

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): January 27, 2014

 

 

Prothena Corporation plc

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

Ireland

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation)

 

001-35676   98-1111119

(Commission

File Number)

 

(IRS Employer

Identification Number)

650 Gateway Boulevard

South San Francisco, California 94080

(Address of principal executive offices, including Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 837-8550

 

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:

 

¨ Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

¨ Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

¨ Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

 

 

 


Item 2.02 Results of Operations and Financial Condition.

On January 27, 2014, Prothena Corporation plc (“Prothena”) disclosed that as of December 31, 2013, based on preliminary estimates, Prothena had cash and cash equivalents of $176.7 million. This financial information has been prepared by and is the responsibility of our management and has not been reviewed or audited by our independent registered public accounting firm, and, accordingly, our independent registered public accounting firm does not express an opinion on or provide any other form of assurance with respect to this preliminary data. This financial information is subject to completion of our year-end financial closing procedures, the preparation of our financial statements, and the completion of the audit of our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2013, and our actual results may differ from these estimates.

 

Item 8.01 Other Events

In connection with a proposed underwritten public offering of ordinary shares by a certain selling shareholder pursuant to Prothena’s effective shelf registration statement, Prothena has updated certain disclosures contained in its periodic reports filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. A copy of the updated disclosures is attached as Exhibit 99.1 to this Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.

 

  (d) Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.

  

Description

99.1    Disclosures.

 

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SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

Date: January 27, 2014     PROTHENA CORPORATION PLC
    By:   /s/ Dale B. Schenk
    Name: Dale B. Schenk
    Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit No.

  

Description

99.1    Disclosures.

Exhibit 99.1

Regulation

We anticipate that if we commercialize any products, the U.S. market will be our most important market. For this reason, the laws and regulations discussed below focus on the requirements applicable to biologic products in the United States.

Government Regulation

Governmental authorities, including the FDA and comparable regulatory authorities in other countries, regulate the design, development, testing, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, labeling, storage, record-keeping, advertising, promotion and marketing of pharmaceutical products, including biologics, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or FFDCA, and its implementing regulations, and the Public Health Service Act, or PHSA, and its implementing regulations. Non-compliance with applicable requirements can result in fines and other judicially imposed sanctions, including product seizures, import restrictions, injunctive actions and criminal prosecutions of both companies and individuals. In addition, administrative remedies can involve requests to recall violative products; the refusal of the government to enter into supply contracts; or the refusal to approve pending product approval applications until manufacturing or other alleged deficiencies are brought into compliance. The FDA also has the authority to cause the withdrawal of approval of a marketed product or to impose labeling restrictions.

The pricing of pharmaceutical products is regulated in many countries and the mechanism of price regulation varies. In the United States, while there are limited indirect federal government price controls over private sector purchases of drugs, it is not possible to predict future regulatory action on the pricing of pharmaceutical products.

Product Approval

In the United States, our drug candidates are regulated as biologic pharmaceuticals, or biologics. The FDA regulates biologics under the FFDCA, PHSA and its implementing regulations. Biologics are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process required by the FDA before biologic product candidates may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

 

   

submission to the FDA of an Investigational New Drug Application, or IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin and must be updated annually;

 

   

completion of extensive preclinical laboratory tests and preclinical animal studies, all performed in accordance with the FDA’s Good Laboratory Practice, or GLP, regulations;

 

   

performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the product for each proposed indication, all performed in accordance with FDA’s cGCP regulations;

 

   

submission to the FDA of a BLA for a new biologic, after completion of all pivotal clinical trials;

 

   

satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities at which the product is produced and tested to assess compliance with cGMP regulations; and

 

   

FDA review and approval of a BLA for a new biologic, prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the product in the United States.

 

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Preclinical tests assess the potential safety and efficacy of a product candidate in animal models. The results of these studies must be submitted to the FDA as part of an IND before human testing may proceed. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational drug or biologic product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general investigational plan and the protocol(s) for human studies. The IND also includes results of animal studies or other human studies, as appropriate, as well as manufacturing information, analytical data and any available clinical data or literature to support the use of the investigational new drug. An IND must become effective before human clinical trials may begin. An IND will automatically become effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless before that time the FDA raises concerns or questions related to the proposed clinical trials. In such a case, the IND may be placed on clinical hold and the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns or questions before clinical trials can begin. Accordingly, submission of an IND may or may not result in the FDA allowing clinical trials to commence.

Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational product to human subjects under the supervision of qualified investigators in accordance with cGCPs, which include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety, and the efficacy criteria to be evaluated. A protocol for each clinical trial and any subsequent protocol amendments must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. Additionally, approval must also be obtained from each clinical trial site’s IRB before the trials may be initiated, and the IRB must monitor the study until completed. There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and clinical trial results to public registries.

The clinical investigation of a pharmaceutical, including a biologic, is generally divided into three phases. Although the phases are usually conducted sequentially, they may overlap or be combined. The three phases of an investigation are as follows:

 

   

Phase 1.  Phase 1 includes the initial introduction of an investigational product into humans. Phase 1 clinical trials are typically closely monitored and may be conducted in patients with the target disease or condition or in healthy volunteers. These studies are designed to evaluate the safety, dosage tolerance, metabolism and pharmacologic actions of the investigational product in humans, the side effects associated with increasing doses, and if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. During Phase 1 clinical trials, sufficient information about the investigational product’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects may be obtained to permit the design of well-controlled and scientifically valid Phase 2 clinical trials. The total number of participants included in Phase 1 clinical trials varies, but is generally in the range of 20 to 80;

 

   

Phase 2.  Phase 2 includes controlled clinical trials conducted to preliminarily or further evaluate the effectiveness of the investigational product for a particular indication(s) in patients with the disease or condition under study, to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage, and to identify possible adverse side effects and safety risks associated with the product. Phase 2 clinical trials are typically well-controlled, closely monitored, and conducted in a limited patient population, usually involving no more than several hundred participants;

 

   

Phase 3.  Phase 3 clinical trials are generally controlled clinical trials conducted in an expanded patient population generally at geographically dispersed clinical trial sites. They are performed after preliminary evidence suggesting effectiveness of the product has been obtained, and are intended to further evaluate dosage, clinical effectiveness and safety, to establish the overall benefit-risk relationship of the investigational product, and to provide an adequate basis for product approval. Phase 3 clinical trials usually involve several hundred to several thousand participants.

 

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The clinical trial process can take three to ten years or more to complete, and there can be no assurance that the data collected will support FDA approval of the product. The FDA may place clinical trials on hold at any point in this process if, among other reasons, it concludes that clinical subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Trials may also be terminated by IRBs, which must review and approve all research involving human subjects. Side effects or adverse events that are reported during clinical trials can delay, impede or prevent marketing authorization.

The results of the preclinical and clinical testing, along with information regarding the manufacturing of the product and proposed product labeling, are evaluated and, if determined appropriate, submitted to the FDA through a BLA. The application includes all relevant data available from pertinent preclinical and clinical trials, including negative or ambiguous results as well as positive findings, together with detailed information relating to the product’s chemistry, manufacturing, controls and proposed labeling, among other things. Data can come from company-sponsored clinical trials intended to test the safety and effectiveness of a use of a product, or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by investigators.

Once the BLA submission has been accepted for filing, the FDA’s standard goal is to review applications within ten months of the filing date or, in the case of priority review, six months from the filing date. The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. The FDA reviews the BLA to determine, among other things, whether the proposed product is safe, pure and potent, which includes determining whether it is effective for its intended use, and whether the product is being manufactured in accordance with cGMP, to assure and preserve the product’s identity, strength, quality, potency and purity. The FDA may refer the application to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it typically follows such recommendations.

After the FDA evaluates the BLA and conducts inspections of manufacturing facilities where the candidate product and/or its API will be produced, it may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter. An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the biologic with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A Complete Response Letter indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application is not ready for approval. A Complete Response Letter may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial(s), and/or other significant, expensive and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing. Even if such additional information is submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the BLA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. The FDA could approve the BLA with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, plan to mitigate risks, which could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools. The FDA also may condition approval on, among other things, changes to proposed labeling, development of adequate controls and specifications, or a commitment to conduct one or more post-market studies or clinical trials. Such post-market testing may include Phase 4 clinical trials and surveillance to further assess and monitor the product’s safety and effectiveness after commercialization.

There can be no marketing in the United States of a biologic until a BLA has been submitted and approved by the FDA. Until an application is actually approved, there can be no assurance that the information requested and submitted will be considered adequate by the FDA.

 

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Post-Approval Requirements

Any products manufactured or distributed by us or on our behalf pursuant to FDA approvals are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including requirements for record-keeping, reporting of adverse experiences with the biologic, and submitting biological product deviation reports to notify the FDA of unanticipated changes in distributed products. Additionally, any significant change in the approved product or in how it is manufactured, including changes in formulation or the site of manufacture, generally require prior FDA approval. The packaging and labeling of all products developed by us are also subject to FDA approval and ongoing regulation.

Manufacturers are required to register their facilities with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP standards, which impose certain quality processes, manufacturing controls and documentation requirements upon us and our third-party manufacturers in order to ensure that the product is safe, has the identity and strength, and meets the quality, purity and potency characteristics that it purports to have. Certain states also impose requirements on manufacturers and distributors to establish the pedigree of product in the chain of distribution, including some states that require manufacturers and others to adopt new technology capable of tracking and tracing product as it moves through the distribution chain. Noncompliance with cGMP or other requirements can result in issuance of warning letters, civil and criminal penalties, seizures, and injunctive action.

FDA regulations also require investigation and correction of any deviations from cGMP and impose reporting and documentation requirements upon us and any third-party manufacturers that we may decide to use. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain compliance with cGMP and other aspects of regulatory compliance.

The FDA and other federal and state agencies closely regulate the labeling, marketing and promotion of drugs. While doctors are free to prescribe any product approved by the FDA for any use, a company can only make claims relating to safety and efficacy of a product that are consistent with FDA approval, and the company is allowed to market a drug only for the particular use and treatment approved by the FDA. In addition, any claims we make for our products in advertising or promotion must be appropriately balanced with important safety information and otherwise be adequately substantiated. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in adverse publicity, warning letters, corrective advertising, injunctions, potential civil and criminal penalties, criminal prosecution, and agreements with governmental agencies that materially restrict the manner in which a company promotes or distributes drug products. Government regulators, including the Department of Justice and the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services, as well as state authorities, recently have increased their scrutiny of the promotion and marketing of drugs.

The FDA also enforces the requirements of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, which, among other things, imposes various requirements in connection with the distribution of product samples to physicians. Sales, marketing and scientific/educational grant programs must comply with the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the False Claims Act, and similar state laws, each as amended from time to time. Pricing and rebate programs must comply with the Medicaid rebate requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, as amended. We may also be subject to the Physician Payment Sunshine Act, or Sunshine Act, which regulates disclosure of payments to healthcare professionals and providers.

The FCPA and UK Bribery Act prohibit companies and their representatives from offering, promising, authorizing or making payments to foreign officials (and certain private individuals under the U.K. Bribery Act) for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business abroad. In many countries, the healthcare professionals we interact with may meet the definition of a foreign government official for purposes of the FCPA. Failure to comply with domestic or foreign laws could result in various adverse consequences, including possible delay in approval or refusal to approve a product, recalls, seizures, withdrawal of an approved product from the market, the imposition of civil or criminal sanctions and the prosecution of executives overseeing our international operations.

 

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Orphan Drugs

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting a BLA. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and user-fee waivers. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. The first BLA/NDA applicant to receive FDA approval for a particular active ingredient to treat a particular disease with FDA orphan drug designation is entitled to a seven-year exclusive marketing period in the United States for that product, for that indication. During the seven-year exclusivity period, the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same orphan indication, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan exclusivity or if FDA finds that the holder of the orphan drug exclusivity has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan drug to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated. As a result, even if one of our drug candidates receives orphan exclusivity, the FDA can still approve other drugs that have a different active ingredient for use in treating the same indication or disease. Furthermore, the FDA can waive orphan exclusivity if we are unable to manufacture sufficient supply of our product.

Pharmaceutical Coverage, Pricing and Reimbursement

Sales of our products will depend, in part, on the extent to which our products will be covered by third-party payors, such as federal, state, and foreign government health care programs, commercial insurance and managed healthcare organizations. These third-party payors are increasingly reducing reimbursements for medical products, drugs and services. In addition, the U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have continued implementing cost containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products. Adoption of price controls and cost-containment measures, and adoption of more restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could further limit our net revenue and results. Decreases in third-party reimbursement for our drug candidates or a decision by a third-party payor to not cover our drug candidates could reduce physician usage of our products once approved and have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations and financial condition.

Other Healthcare Laws

Although we currently do not have any products on the market, if our drug candidates are approved and we begin commercialization, we may be subject to additional healthcare regulation and enforcement by the federal government and by authorities in the states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. Such laws include, without limitation, state and federal anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, privacy and security and physician sunshine laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including, without limitation, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs and imprisonment, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.

 

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Patents and Intellectual Property Rights

We aggressively strive to protect the proprietary technology that we believe is important to our business, including seeking and maintaining domestic and international patents intended to cover our products and compositions, their methods of use and processes for their manufacture and any other inventions that may be commercially important to the development of our business. We also rely on trade secrets to protect aspects of our business. Our competitive position depends on our ability to obtain patents on our technologies and our potential products, to defend our patents, to protect our trade secrets and to operate without infringing valid and enforceable patents or trade secrets of others. We seek licenses from others as appropriate to enhance or maintain our competitive position.

We or our affiliates own or hold licenses to a number of issued U.S. patents and pending U.S. patent applications, as well as issued foreign patents and pending Patent Corporation Treaty applications and foreign counterparts.

In connection with our program targeting AL and AA amyloid for the potential treatment of amyloidosis, we or our affiliates own U.S. Patent No. 7,928,203, which is a composition of matter patent and expires in 2029, U.S. Patent No. 8,268,973, which is a composition of matter patent and expires in 2028, and U.S. Patent No. 8,404,815, which is a composition of matter patent and expires in 2028. We or our affiliates also own U.S. Patent No. 8,124,081, which is a method of treatment patent and expires in 2020.

In addition, we or our affiliates jointly own with the University of Tennessee Research Foundation, or the University of Tennessee, patent applications pending in the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Eurasia, Europe, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Norway, Philippines, Singapore and South Africa, and an issued parent in New Zealand, and have exclusively licensed the University of Tennessee’s joint ownership interest in these patents and patent applications. Under our affiliate’s exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide license agreement with the University of Tennessee entered into on December 31, 2008, we paid to the University of Tennessee an annual maintenance fee of $10,000 on each of the first two anniversaries of execution of the license agreement, and have paid, and are required to continue to pay, $25,000 on each anniversary thereafter. In addition, we have paid a license issue fee of $10,000, and we are required to pay to the University of Tennessee an amount equal to 1% of net sales of any product covered by any licensed patent, plus certain additional payments in the event that all or a portion of the license is sublicensed. To date, we have not paid or incurred any royalties to the University of Tennessee under our license agreement. The license agreement will continue in effect on a country-by-country basis for the longer of (i) a period of twenty years from the date of execution of the license agreement, or (ii) in each country in which a valid claim for any licensed patent or patent application exists, expiration of such valid claim. The agreement will terminate prior to the end of its term if we are adjudicated by a court of competent jurisdiction to be insolvent, if we are dissolved, are declared bankrupt or we are placed in receivership, unless the University of Tennessee elects to allow the agreement to remain in effect. The University of Tennessee may terminate the agreement prior to the end of its term upon our failure to make payment under the agreement within 120 days of notice of such failure or upon our material breach of the agreement, which breach has not been cured within 60 days of written notice of such breach. We may terminate the agreement prior to the end of its term if we have paid all amounts due to the University of Tennessee through the effective date of the termination and provide three months’ written notice to the University of Tennessee or upon material breach of the agreement by the University of Tennessee, which breach has not been cured within 60 days of written notice of such breach.

 

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We or our affiliates also hold an exclusive, royalty-free sublicense from Elan and certain affiliates of Elan under foreign patent rights owned by Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy relating to immunotherapeutic approaches targeting certain proteins solely for research, development and commercialization activities directed to the use, in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases, of active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches directly targeting certain targets, but specifically excluding amyloid beta peptide, or the Projects. In connection with our program targeting synuclein for the potential treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies, we or our affiliates hold an exclusive, royalty-free license from Elan and certain affiliates of Elan to U.S. Patent No. 7,910,333, which is a composition of matter patent and expires in 2024, and we or our affiliates own or hold exclusive, royalty-free licenses from Elan and certain affiliates of Elan, solely for the Projects, under patent rights relating to research tools such as animal models and assay technology. In addition, we or our affiliates jointly own with the Regents of the University of California U.S. Patent Nos. 7,919,088, 8,092,801, 8,147,833 and 8,506,959, which are method of treatment patents and expire in 2025, 2029, 2027 and 2026, respectively.

We or our affiliates also own patent applications relating to AL and AA, synuclein, MCAM or various discovery programs that are pending in the United States and other countries, which, if issued, would have expiration dates in the range of 2020 through 2034, excluding any available patent term adjustment.

Amended and Restated Intellectual Property License and Contribution Agreement

Pursuant to an Amended and Restated Intellectual Property License and Contribution Agreement, as amended, Elan, Crimagua Limited (“Crimagua”), Elan Pharma International Limited (“EPIL”) and Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“EPI”) (collectively, the “Elan Parties”) conveyed ownership of patents, patent applications, biological materials, chemical materials and other intellectual property to Neotope Biosciences relating to (i) NEOD001 compositions and methods (including U.S. Patent Nos. 7,928,203, 8,268,973, 8,404,815, and 8,124,081) and (ii) immunotherapeutic approaches targeting various misfolding proteins, including synuclein, AA amyloid, AL amyloid, type 2 diabetes targets and other targets, but specifically excluding amyloid beta peptide (including U.S. Patent Nos. 7,919,088, 8,092,801 and 8,147,833). The Elan Parties also conveyed to Neotope Biosciences any liabilities relating to the assets so conveyed, subject to the terms of the Demerger Agreement described below, including Elan’s agreement in the Demerger Agreement to pay a portion of the Trade Payables as described below.

In addition, under the agreement, the Elan Parties licensed to Neotope Biosciences, on an exclusive, fully paid, perpetual, irrevocable (except as may be terminated as described below) and royalty free basis (with the right to grant sublicenses), to conduct research and development activities and to make, have made, use, offer for sale, sell and import products solely for the Projects (as described below) under (i) patent rights relating to synuclein antibodies, synuclein immunogens and synuclein animal models, or Synuclein Patent Rights, and (ii) biological material relating to synuclein antibodies, control antibodies and reagents as scheduled in the agreement, or Specified Biological Material. “Projects” means research, development and commercialization activities directed to the use, in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases, of active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches directly targeting certain targets named in the agreement (including, among others, synuclein, tau and certain targets relating to type 2 diabetes, but not amyloid beta peptide).

This agreement provides for the termination of the licenses from the Elan Parties to Neotope Biosciences under (i) certain of the Synuclein Patent Rights and (ii) the Specified Biological Material with respect to any Projects that are “inactive” (i.e. Projects which Prothena has funded at an average annual rate of less than $75,000 over a period of two calendar years, including both internal and external expenditures in the aggregate).

 

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The agreement also provides for the sublicense from the Elan Parties to Neotope Biosciences, on a paid-up, worldwide, exclusive basis (with the right to grant sublicenses) solely for the Projects, to make, use, offer for sale, sell and import products under rights in identified patents and patent applications that are currently owned by Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, or Janssen AI, that relate to immunotherapeutic approaches targeting misfolding proteins. The term of the sublicense to Neotope Biosciences is co-extensive with the expiration of the patent term of the sublicensed patents. Under Elan’s agreement with Janssen AI, Janssen AI granted a paid-up, worldwide, exclusive license (with the right to grant sublicenses) to Crimagua and any affiliate designated by Crimagua, under certain patents and patent applications owned by Janssen AI, solely for purposes outside the field of treatment and/or prevention of human neurodegenerative conditions associated with beta amyloid deposition; the Elan Parties in turn sublicense to Neotope Biosciences, on an a paid-up, worldwide, exclusive basis (with the right to grant sublicenses) the patents and patent applications licensed from Janssen AI. In the event that patents issue under certain of the patent applications owned by Janssen AI that solely contain claims outside the field of treatment or prevention of human neurodegenerative conditions associated with beta amyloid deposition, Elan’s agreement with Janssen AI provides that ownership of the issued patents will be conveyed by Janssen AI to Elan or its designated affiliate; the Elan Parties in turn convey ownership of any such issued patents to Neotope Biosciences.

The agreement clarifies (as described above) the assets contributed and licenses granted by EPIL to an affiliate of Neotope Biosciences in 2010, in exchange for shares in such affiliate, which assets and licenses were immediately thereafter assigned by such affiliate to Neotope Biosciences in exchange for shares in Neotope Biosciences with a value equal to approximately $1.8 million.

Intellectual Property License and Conveyance Agreement

Pursuant to an Intellectual Property License and Conveyance Agreement, in exchange for $375,000, EPIL and EPI (collectively, the “EP Parties”) conveyed ownership of patents, patent applications, biological materials, chemical materials and other intellectual property to Neotope Biosciences relating to (i) immunotherapeutic approaches targeting melanoma cell adhesion molecule, or MCAM, and certain other targets and (ii) certain small molecules targeting synuclein. Neotope Biosciences also assumed any liabilities relating to the assets acquired under the agreement, subject to the terms of the Demerger Agreement, including Elan’s agreement in the Demerger Agreement to pay a portion of the Trade Payables as described below.

In addition, under the agreement, the EP Parties licensed to Neotope Biosciences, on an exclusive, fully paid, perpetual, irrevocable (except as may be terminated as described below) and royalty free basis (with the right to grant sublicenses), to conduct research and development activities and to make, have made, use, offer for sale, sell and import products solely for the Additional Projects (as described below) under (i) Synuclein Patent Rights and (ii) compounds and biologic material relating to synuclein antibodies, control antibodies and reagents as scheduled in the agreement, or Specified Material. “Additional Projects” means research, development and commercialization activities directed to the use, in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases, of (i) active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches directly targeting MCAM, Laminin, advanced glycation end products, and damaged myelin and (ii) small molecule compounds that target synuclein and are identified in the agreement.

The agreement provides that for the termination of the licenses from the EP Parties to Neotope Biosciences under (i) certain of the Synuclein Patent Rights and (ii) Specified Material with respect Additional Projects that are “inactive” (i.e. Additional Projects which Prothena has funded at an average annual rate of less than $75,000 over a period of two calendar years, including both internal and external expenditures in the aggregate).

 

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Transitional Services Agreement

We entered into a Transitional Services Agreement with Elan on December 20, 2012 under which, Elan will provide to us, and we will provide to Elan, specified services to help ensure an orderly transition following the Separation and Distribution. The services provided by Elan under the agreement include CMC/quality assurance, information technology services, facilities services, company secretarial services, finance services, legal services, compliance services and human resources services. The services provided by Prothena include finance services and assisting in reviewing proposed Elan publications related to work done at Elan prior to separation.

We expect that the agreement will remain in effect until the expiration of the last time period for the performance of services thereunder, which in no event shall be later than December 31, 2013.

Both we and Elan are permitted to terminate the agreement (to the extent it relates to any particular transitional service) with 15 days’ notice with respect to services provided by the other party or if the other party breaches any of its significant obligations under the agreement and does not cure such breach within 20 business days of receiving written notice from the other party. In addition, either party may terminate the agreement if a receiver, examiner or administrator is appointed with respect to any of the other party’s assets, the other company is struck off the Register of Companies in its jurisdiction of organization.

The payment terms of the agreement generally provide that Prothena will pay Elan for the time spent by each Elan employee providing the services, which will be calculated by the portion of the employee’s time dedicated to the provision of the services, plus 40%. The time for each employee will be calculated using one of two specified rates per annum depending on the employee’s wage band. Similarly, Elan will pay Prothena for the time spent by each Prothena employee providing services to Elan, which will be an agreed percentage of the employee’s time, based on the cost of providing those services plus 40% and including, as applicable, any fees for any services from Elan or Prothena provided by third party providers and invoiced to the recipient at cost. The services from Prothena will also be calculated using one of two specified rates per annum depending on the employee’s wage band.

Research and Development Services Agreement

We entered into a Research and Development Services Agreement with Elan on December 20, 2012, pursuant to which we will provide certain research and development services to Elan. The agreement, among other things, sets out the scope of the services, the consideration to be paid for the services and the general principles around ownership of intellectual property as it relates to the services. The agreement has a term of two years. Either party is entitled to terminate the agreement at any time by notice in writing to the other party if there has been an uncured material breach by the other party or if the other party becomes insolvent or if the other party is in breach of any of its confidentiality obligations under the agreement.

The services provided for under the agreement include support for the ELND005 program (which include the provision of expert advice and opinion in the areas of nonclinical safety/toxicology and pharmacology, regulatory support for nonclinical sections of pertinent documents, conducting and interpreting externally conducted nonclinical studies, and support in respect of the identification and maintenance of nonclinical expert advisors as required). These services are substantially similar to research services performed by Prothena for Elan prior to the Separation and Distribution.

The payment terms of the agreement provide that Elan will pay Prothena: (i) a fixed charge of $500,000 per year based on a charge for two Prothena employees providing the services at a rate of $250,000 each per annum, (ii) if the $500,000 fixed charge has been paid in any year, a variable charge of $250,000 per year for any additional Prothena employee that provides services for such year (calculated pro rata based on the number of days the Prothena employee provides services in such year), (iii) research costs including direct overheads and (iv) a mark-up of 10% applied to the fixed charge, variable charge (if any) and research costs such that the total payment reflects a cost-plus standard. The research costs include a fixed monthly charge to account for lab space and capital equipment used by Elan, for so long as Elan uses such lab space and capital equipment. The payments will be made on a monthly basis.

 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our ordinary shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, including our Financial Statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission before deciding whether to invest in our ordinary shares. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our ordinary shares could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations.

Risks Relating to Our Financial Position, Our Need for Additional Capital and Our Business

We have not generated any significant third party external revenue to date, and we anticipate that we will incur losses for the foreseeable future and we may never achieve or sustain profitability.

We may not generate the cash that is necessary to finance our operations in the foreseeable future. We have not generated any significant third party external revenues to date. We have incurred losses of $41.4 million, $29.7 million and $12.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, and $29.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2013. We expect to continue to incur substantial losses for the foreseeable future as we:

 

   

conduct our Phase 1 clinical trial for NEOD001 and initiate additional clinical trials, if supported by the results of the Phase 1 trial;

 

   

develop and commercialize our product candidates, including NEOD001 and PRX002 and any other antibodies targeting alpha-synuclein pursuant to our License Agreement with Roche;

 

   

complete preclinical development of other product candidates and initiate clinical trials, if supported by positive preclinical data; and

 

   

pursue our early stage research and seek to identify additional drug candidates and potentially acquire rights from third parties to drug candidates through licenses, acquisitions or other means.

We must generate significant revenue to achieve and sustain profitability. Even if we succeed in discovering, developing and commercializing one or more drug candidates, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue and we may never be able to achieve or sustain profitability.

We will require additional capital to fund our operations, and if we are unable to obtain such capital, we will be unable to successfully develop and commercialize drug candidates.

As of September 30, 2013 and December 31, 2013, we had cash and cash equivalents of $101.9 million and $176.7 million (unaudited), respectively. In addition, we expect to receive a $30.0 million upfront payment in the first quarter of 2014 from Roche pursuant to the License Agreement because the applicable Hart-Scott-Rodino waiting period has expired, as well as a $15.0 million near-term clinical milestone payment in 2014. Although we believe, based on our current business plans, that our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our obligations for at least the next twelve months, we anticipate that we will require additional capital in the future in order to continue the research and development of our drug candidates. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors that are currently unknown to us, including, without limitation:

 

   

the timing of initiation, progress, results and costs of our clinical trials, including our Phase 1 clinical trial for NEOD001, and our development and commercialization activities, including our portion of similar costs relating to PRX002 in the United States pursuant to our License Agreement with Roche;

 

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the results of our research and preclinical studies;

 

   

the costs of clinical manufacturing and of establishing commercial manufacturing arrangements;

 

   

the costs of preparing, filing, and prosecuting patent applications and maintaining, enforcing, and defending intellectual property-related claims;

 

   

our ability to establish research collaborations, strategic collaborations, licensing or other arrangements;

 

   

the costs to satisfy our obligations under potential future collaborations; and

 

   

the timing, receipt, and amount of revenues or royalties, if any, from any approved drug candidates.

We have based our expectations relating to liquidity and capital resources on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of our product candidates, we are unable to estimate the amounts of increased capital outlays and operating expenses associated with completing the development of our current product candidates.

We are not able to provide specific estimates of the timelines or total costs to complete the ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial for NEOD001 that we initiated in April 2013. We have also entered into a License Agreement under which we will collaborate with Roche to develop and commercialize PRX002. Under this License Agreement, we are responsible for 30% of all development and commercialization costs for PRX002 for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the United States, and for any future Licensed Products and/or indications that we opt to co-develop in the United States, in each case unless we elect to opt out of profit and loss sharing. Our right to co-develop PRX002 and other Licensed Products under the License Agreement will terminate if we commence certain studies for a competitive product that treats Parkinson’s disease or other indications that we opted to co-develop. In addition, our right to co-promote PRX002 and other Licensed Products will terminate if we commence a Phase 3 study for a competitive product that treats Parkinson’s disease.

In the pharmaceutical industry, the research and development process is lengthy and involves a high degree of risk and uncertainty. This process is conducted in various stages and, during each stage, there is a substantial risk that product candidates in our research and development pipeline will experience difficulties, delays or failures. This makes it difficult to estimate the total costs to complete our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial or any future clinical trials for NEOD001, and to estimate the anticipated completion date with any degree of accuracy, or any potential future drug candidates, or to develop and receive regulatory approval for PRX002 and any future Licensed Products, and raises concerns that attempts to provide estimates of timing may be misleading by implying a greater degree of certainty than actually exists.

In order to develop and obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates we will need to raise substantial additional funds. We expect to raise any such additional funds through public or private equity or debt financings, collaborative agreements with corporate partners or other arrangements. We cannot assure you that additional funds will be available when we need them on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. General market conditions may make it very difficult for us to seek financing from the capital markets. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, substantial dilution to existing shareholders would result. If we raise additional funds by incurring debt financing, the terms of the debt may involve significant cash payment obligations as well as covenants and specific financial ratios that may restrict our ability to operate our business. We may be required to relinquish rights to our technologies or drug candidates or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us in order to raise additional funds through strategic alliances, joint ventures or licensing arrangements.

If adequate funds are not available on a timely basis, we may be required to:

 

   

terminate or delay clinical trials or other development for one or more of our drug candidates;

 

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delay arrangements for activities that may be necessary to commercialize our drug candidates;

 

   

curtail or eliminate our drug research and development programs that are designed to identify new drug candidates; or

 

   

cease operations.

In addition, if we do not meet our payment obligations to third parties as they come due, we may be subject to litigation claims. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and distract management, and may have unfavorable results that could further adversely impact our financial condition.

Our future success depends on our ability to retain our chief executive officer and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.

We are highly dependent on Dr. Dale Schenk, our President and Chief Executive Officer. We expect that we will continue to pay our key executives less cash compensation than what they were paid by Elan. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain Dr. Schenk or any of our key executives. The loss of the services of Dr. Schenk or any other person on which we become highly dependent might impede the achievement of our research and development objectives. Recruiting and retaining qualified scientific personnel will also be critical to our success. We may not be able to attract and retain these personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies for similar personnel. We also experience competition for the hiring of scientific personnel from universities and research institutions.

Our collaborators, prospective collaborators and suppliers may need assurances that our financial resources and stability on a stand-alone basis are sufficient to satisfy their requirements for doing or continuing to do business with us.

Some of our collaborators, prospective collaborators and suppliers may need assurances that our financial resources and stability on a stand-alone basis are sufficient to satisfy their requirements for doing or continuing to do business with us. If our collaborators, prospective collaborators or suppliers are not satisfied with our financial resources and stability, it could have a material adverse effect on our ability to develop our drug candidates, enter into licenses or other agreements and on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Regulatory Approval of Drug Candidates

Our success is largely dependent on the success of our research and development programs, which are at an early stage. Our drug candidates are still in early stages of development and we have only one drug candidate in its first Phase 1 clinical trials. We may not be able to successfully discover, develop, obtain regulatory approval for or commercialize any drug candidates.

The success of our business depends substantially upon our ability to discover, develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize our drug candidates successfully. Our research and development programs are prone to the significant and likely risks of failure inherent in drug development. We intend to continue to invest most of our time and financial resources in our research and development programs. Although we have initiated one Phase 1 clinical trial for NEOD001, there is no assurance that this clinical trial will support further development of this drug candidate. In addition, we currently do not, and may never, have any other drug candidates in clinical trials, and we have not identified drug candidates for many of our research programs.

Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any drug candidate for a target indication, we must demonstrate with substantial evidence gathered in well-controlled clinical trials, and, with respect to approval in the United States, to the satisfaction of the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, or, with respect to approval in other countries, similar regulatory authorities in those countries, that the

 

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drug candidate is safe and effective for use for that target indication. Satisfaction of these and other regulatory requirements is costly, time consuming, uncertain, and subject to unanticipated delays. Despite our efforts, our drug candidates may not:

 

   

offer improvement over existing, comparable products;

 

   

be proven safe and effective in clinical trials; or

 

   

meet applicable regulatory standards.

Positive results in preclinical studies of a drug candidate may not be predictive of similar results in humans during clinical trials, and promising results from early clinical trials of a drug candidate may not be replicated in later clinical trials. Interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. A number of companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in late-stage clinical trials even after achieving promising results in early-stage development. Accordingly, the results from completed preclinical studies and clinical trials for our drug candidates may not be predictive of the results we may obtain in later stage trials or studies. Our preclinical studies or clinical trials may produce negative or inconclusive results, and we may decide, or regulators may require us, to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials, or to discontinue clinical trials altogether.

Furthermore, we have not marketed, distributed or sold any products. Our success will, in addition to the factors discussed above, depend on the successful commercialization of our drug candidates, which may require:

 

   

obtaining and maintaining commercial manufacturing arrangements with third-party manufacturers;

 

   

collaborating with pharmaceutical companies or contract sales organizations to market and sell any approved drug; or

 

   

acceptance of any approved drug in the medical community and by patients and third-party payors.

Many of these factors are beyond our control. We do not expect any of our drug candidates to be commercially available for several years and some or all may never become commercially available. Accordingly, we may never generate revenues through the sale of products.

If clinical trials of our drug candidates are prolonged, delayed, suspended or terminated, we may be unable to commercialize our drug candidates on a timely basis, which would require us to incur additional costs and delay our receipt of any revenue from potential product sales.

We cannot predict whether we will encounter problems with our Phase 1 clinical trial for NEOD001 or any future clinical trials that will cause us or any regulatory authority to delay or suspend those clinical trials or delay the analysis of data derived from them. For example, our current Phase 1 NEOD001 clinical trial targets patients with amyloidosis, an orphan population with a relatively small pool of patients who may be eligible, accessible and interested in participating in clinical trials. A number of events, including any of the following, could delay the completion of our planned clinical trials and negatively impact our ability to obtain regulatory approval for, and to market and sell, a particular drug candidate:

 

   

conditions imposed on us by the FDA or any foreign regulatory authority regarding the scope or design of our clinical trials;

 

   

delays in obtaining, or our inability to obtain, required approvals from institutional review boards, or IRBs, or other reviewing entities at clinical sites selected for participation in our clinical trials;

 

   

insufficient supply or deficient quality of our drug candidates or other materials necessary to conduct our clinical trials;

 

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delays in obtaining regulatory agency agreement for the conduct of our clinical trials;

 

   

lower than anticipated enrollment and retention rate of subjects in clinical trials for a variety of reasons, including size of patient population, nature of trial protocol, the availability of approved effective treatments for the relevant disease and competition from other clinical trial programs for similar indications;

 

   

serious and unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by patients in clinical trials; or

 

   

failure of our third-party contractors to meet their contractual obligations to us in a timely manner.

Clinical trials may also be delayed or terminated as a result of ambiguous or negative interim results. In addition, a clinical trial may be suspended or terminated by us, the FDA, the IRBs at the sites where the IRBs are overseeing a trial, or a data safety monitoring board, or DSMB, overseeing the clinical trial at issue, or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including:

 

   

failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols;

 

   

inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial sites by the FDA or other regulatory authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold;

 

   

varying interpretation of data by the FDA or similar foreign regulatory authorities;

 

   

failure to achieve primary or secondary endpoints or other failure to demonstrate efficacy;

 

   

unforeseen safety issues; or

 

   

lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Additionally, changes in regulatory requirements and guidance may occur and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to reflect these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to IRBs for reexamination, which may impact the cost, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial.

We do not know whether our clinical trials will be conducted as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, if at all. Delays in our clinical trials will result in increased development costs for our drug candidates. In addition, if we experience delays in the completion of, or if we terminate, any of our clinical trials, the commercial prospects for our drug candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate product revenues will be jeopardized. Furthermore, many of the factors that cause, or lead to, a delay in the commencement or completion of clinical trials may also ultimately lead to the denial of regulatory approval of a drug candidate.

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA and comparable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our drug candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to obtain approval by the FDA and comparable foreign authorities is inherently unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a drug candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained regulatory approval for any drug candidate and it is possible that none of our existing drug candidates or any drug candidates we may seek to develop in the future will ever obtain regulatory approval.

 

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Our drug candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval for many reasons, including the following:

 

   

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;

 

   

we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities that a drug candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;

 

   

the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities for approval;

 

   

we may be unable to demonstrate that a drug candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;

 

   

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;

 

   

the data collected from clinical trials of our drug candidates may not be sufficient to support the submission of a Biologics License Application, or BLA, or other submission or to obtain regulatory approval in the United States or elsewhere;

 

   

the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; or

 

   

the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

This lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain regulatory approval to market our drug candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects. In addition, even if we were to obtain approval, regulatory authorities may approve any of our drug candidates for fewer or more limited indications than we request, may not approve the price we intend to charge for our products, may grant approval contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials, or may approve a drug candidate with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for the successful commercialization of that drug candidate. Any of the foregoing scenarios could materially harm the commercial prospects for our drug candidates.

Even if our drug candidates receive regulatory approval in the United States, we may never receive approval or commercialize our products outside of the United States.

In order to market any products outside of the United States, we must establish and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy. Approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process in other countries may include all of the risks detailed above regarding FDA approval in the United States as well as other risks. Regulatory approval in one country does not ensure regulatory approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others. Failure to obtain regulatory approval in other countries or any delay or setback in obtaining such approval would impair our ability to develop foreign markets for our drug candidates.

Both before and after marketing approval, our drug candidates are subject to ongoing regulatory requirements and continued regulatory review, and if we fail to comply with these continuing requirements, we could be subject to a variety of sanctions and the sale of any approved products could be suspended.

Both before and after regulatory approval to market a particular drug candidate, the manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion, distribution and record keeping

 

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related to the product are subject to extensive, ongoing regulatory requirements. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as continued compliance with current good manufacturing practice, or cGMP, requirements and current good clinical practice, or cGCP, requirements for any clinical trials that we conduct post-approval. Any regulatory approvals that we receive for our drug candidates may also be subject to limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the product may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including Phase IV clinical trials, and surveillance to monitor the safety and efficacy of the drug candidate. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with our third-party manufacturers or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with the regulatory requirements of the FDA and other applicable U.S. and foreign regulatory authorities could subject us to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:

 

   

restrictions on the marketing of our products or their manufacturing processes;

 

   

warning letters;

 

   

civil or criminal penalties;

 

   

fines;

 

   

injunctions;

 

   

product seizures or detentions;

 

   

import or export bans;

 

   

voluntary or mandatory product recalls and related publicity requirements;

 

   

suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;

 

   

total or partial suspension of production; and

 

   

refusal to approve pending applications for marketing approval of new products or supplements to approved applications.

The FDA’s policies may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could prevent, limit or delay regulatory approval of our drug candidates. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may lose any marketing approval that we may have obtained, which would adversely affect our business, prospects and ability to achieve or sustain profitability.

If side effects are identified during the time our drug candidates are in development or after they are approved and on the market, we may choose to or be required to perform lengthy additional clinical trials, discontinue development of the affected drug candidate, change the labeling of any such products, or withdraw any such products from the market, any of which would hinder or preclude our ability to generate revenues.

Undesirable side effects caused by our drug candidates could cause us or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in a more restrictive label or the delay or denial of regulatory approval by the FDA or other comparable foreign authorities. The drug-related side effects could affect patient recruitment or the ability of enrolled patients to complete the trial or result in potential product liability claims. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly. Even if any of our drug candidates receives marketing approval, as greater numbers of patients use a drug following its approval, an increase in the incidence of side effects or the incidence of other post-approval problems that were not seen or anticipated during pre-approval clinical trials could result in a number of potentially significant negative consequences, including:

 

   

regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product;

 

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regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as warnings or contraindications;

 

   

we may be required to change the way the product is administered, conduct additional clinical trials or change the labeling of the product;

 

   

we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; and

 

   

our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could substantially increase the costs and expenses of developing, commercializing and marketing any such drug candidates or could harm or prevent sales of any approved products.

We deal with hazardous materials and must comply with environmental laws and regulations, which can be expensive and restrict how we do business.

Some of our research and development activities involve the controlled storage, use, and disposal of hazardous materials. We are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. Although we believe that our safety procedures for the handling and disposing of these materials comply with the standards prescribed by these laws and regulations, we cannot eliminate the risk of accidental contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of an accident, state or federal authorities may curtail our use of these materials, and we could be liable for any civil damages that result, which may exceed our financial resources and may seriously harm our business. Because we believe that our laboratory and materials handling policies and practices sufficiently mitigate the likelihood of materials liability or third-party claims, we currently carry no insurance covering such claims. An accident could damage, or force us to shut down, our operations.

Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Drug Candidates

Even if any of our drug candidates receives regulatory approval, if such approved product does not achieve broad market acceptance, the revenues that we generate from sales of the product will be limited.

Even if any drug candidates we may develop or acquire in the future obtain regulatory approval, they may not gain broad market acceptance among physicians, healthcare payors, patients and the medical community. The degree of market acceptance for any approved drug candidate will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

   

the indication and label for the product and the timing of introduction of competitive products;

 

   

demonstration of clinical safety and efficacy compared to other products;

 

   

prevalence and severity of adverse side effects;

 

   

availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from managed care plans and other third-party payors;

 

   

convenience and ease of administration;

 

   

cost-effectiveness;

 

   

other potential advantages of alternative treatment methods; and

 

   

the effectiveness of marketing and distribution support of the product.

Consequently, even if we discover, develop and commercialize a product, the product may fail to achieve broad market acceptance and we may not be able to generate significant revenue from the product.

 

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The success of PRX002 in the United States is dependent upon the strength and performance of our collaboration with Roche. If we fail to maintain our existing collaboration with Roche, such termination would likely have a material adverse effect on our ability to commercialize PRX002 and our business. Furthermore, if we opt out of profit and loss sharing with Roche, our revenues from PRX002 will be reduced.

The success of sales of PRX002 in the United States will be dependent on the ability of Roche to successfully develop in collaboration with us, and launch and commercialize PRX002, if approved by the FDA, pursuant to the License Agreement we entered into in December 2013. Our collaboration with Roche is complex, particularly in the context of our U.S. commercialization of PRX002, with respect to financial provisions, allocations of responsibilities, and the respective rights of the parties in decision making. Accordingly, significant aspects of the commercialization of PRX002 require Roche to execute its responsibilities under the arrangement, or require Roche’s agreement or approval, prior to implementation, which could cause significant delays that may materially impact the potential success of PRX002 in the U.S. In addition, Roche may under some circumstances independently develop products that compete with PRX002, or Roche may decide to not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of PRX002. If we are not able to collaborate effectively with Roche on plans and efforts to develop and commercialize PRX002, our business could be severely and adversely affected.

Furthermore, the terms of the License Agreement provide that Roche has the ability to terminate such arrangement for any reason after the first anniversary of the License Agreement at any time upon 90 days’ notice (if prior to first commercial sale) or 180 days’ notice (if after first commercial sale). For example, Roche may determine that the outcomes of clinical trials have made PRX002 a less attractive commercial product and terminate our collaboration. If the License Agreement is terminated, our business and our ability to generate revenue from sales of PRX002 will be substantially harmed and we will be required to develop our own sales and marketing organization or enter into another strategic collaboration in order to commercialize PRX002 in the United States. Such efforts may not be successful and, even if successful, would require substantial time and resources to carry out.

The manner in which Roche launches PRX002, including the timing of launch and potential pricing, will have a significant impact on the ultimate success of PRX002 in the United States, and the success of the overall commercial arrangement with Roche. If launch of commercial sales of PRX002 in the United States by Roche is delayed or prevented, our revenue will suffer and our stock price will decline. Further, if launch and resulting sales by Roche are not deemed successful, our stock price will decline. Any lesser effort by Roche in its PRX002 sales and marketing efforts may result in lower revenue and thus lower profits allocated to us with respect to the United States. The outcome of Roche’s commercialization efforts in the United States could also have an effect on investors’ perception of potential sales of PRX002 outside of the United States, which could also cause a decline in our stock price.

Furthermore, pursuant to the License Agreement, we are responsible for 30% of all development and commercialization costs for PRX002 for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease in the United States, and for any future Licensed Products and/or indications that we opt to co-develop, in each case unless we elect to opt out of profit and loss sharing. If we elect to opt out of profit and loss sharing, we will instead receive sales milestones and royalties, and our revenue, if any, from PRX002 will be reduced.

Our ability to receive any significant revenue from PRX002 will be dependent on Roche’s efforts and our participation in profit and loss sharing, and may result in lower levels of income than if we marketed or developed our product candidates entirely on our own. Roche may not fulfill its obligations or carry out marketing activities for PRX002 as diligently as we would like. We could also become involved in disputes with Roche, which could lead to delays in or termination of commercialization programs and time-consuming and expensive litigation or arbitration. If Roche terminates or breaches the License Agreement, or otherwise decides not to complete its obligations in a timely manner, the chances of successfully developing or marketing PRX002 would be materially and adversely affected.

 

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Outside of the United States, we are solely dependent on the efforts and commitments of Roche, either directly or through third parties, to further commercialize PRX002. If Roche’s efforts are unsuccessful, our ability to generate future product sales from PRX002 outside the United States would be significantly reduced.

Under our License Agreement, outside of the United States, Roche has responsibility for developing and commercializing PRX002 and any future Licensed Products targeting alpha-synuclein. As a consequence, any progress and commercial success outside of the United States is dependent solely on Roche’s efforts and commitment to the program. For example, Roche may delay, reduce or terminate development efforts relating to PRX002 outside of the United States, or under some circumstances independently develop products that compete with PRX002, or decide not to commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of PRX002.

In the event that Roche does not diligently commercialize PRX002, the License Agreement provides us the right to terminate the License Agreement in connection with a material breach uncured for 90 days after notice thereof. However, our ability to enforce the provisions of the License Agreement so as to obtain meaningful recourse within a reasonable timeframe is uncertain. Further, any decision to pursue available remedies including termination would impact the potential success of PRX002, including inside the United States, and we may choose not to terminate as we may not be able to find another partner and any new collaboration likely will not provide comparable financial terms to those in our arrangement with Roche. In the event of our termination, this may require us to commercialize PRX002 on our own, which is likely to result in significant additional expense and delay. Significant changes in Roche’s business strategy, resource commitment and the willingness or ability of Roche to complete its obligations under our arrangement could materially affect the potential success of the product. Furthermore, if Roche does not successfully develop and commercialize PRX002 outside of the United States, our potential to generate future revenue outside of the United States would be significantly reduced.

If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell approved products, we may be unable to generate product revenue.

We do not currently have an organization for the sales, marketing and distribution of pharmaceutical products. In order to market any products that may be approved by the FDA, we must build our sales, marketing, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services. We have entered into a strategic collaboration for PRX002 with Roche and may develop our own sales force and marketing infrastructure to co-promote PRX002 in the United States for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and any future Licensed Products approved for Parkinson’s disease in the United States. If we exercise our co-promotion option and are unable to develop our own sales force and marketing infrastructure to effectively commercialize PRX002 or other Licensed Products, our ability to generate additional revenue from potential sales of PRX002 or such products in the United States may be harmed. In addition, our right to co-promote PRX002 and other Licensed Products will terminate if we commence a Phase 3 study for a competitive product that treats Parkinson’s disease. For our other approved products, if we are unable to establish adequate sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, whether independently or with third parties, we may not be able to generate product revenue and may not become profitable.

If government and third-party payors fail to provide coverage and adequate reimbursement rates for any of our drug candidates that receive regulatory approval, our revenue and prospects for profitability will be harmed.

In both domestic and foreign markets, our sales of any future products will depend in part upon the availability of reimbursement from third-party payors. Such third-party payors include government health programs such as Medicare, managed care providers, private health insurers, and other organizations. There is significant uncertainty related to the third-party coverage and reimbursement of newly approved drugs. Coverage and reimbursement may not be available for any drug that we or our collaborators commercialize and, even if these are available, the level of reimbursement may not be satisfactory. Third-party payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement policies. Third-party payors are also increasingly attempting to contain healthcare costs by demanding price discounts or rebates and

 

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limiting both coverage and the amounts that they will pay for new drugs, and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our drug candidates. We might need to conduct post-marketing studies in order to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of any future products to such payors’ satisfaction. Such studies might require us to commit a significant amount of management time and financial and other resources. Our future products might not ultimately be considered cost-effective. Adequate third-party reimbursement might not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on investment in product development. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available or reimbursement is available only to limited levels, we or our collaborators may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidates for which marketing approval is obtained.

The regulations that govern marketing approvals, pricing, coverage and reimbursement for new drugs vary widely from country to country. Current and future legislation may significantly change the approval requirements in ways that could involve additional costs and cause delays in obtaining approvals. Some countries require approval of the sale price of a drug before it can be marketed. In many countries, the pricing review period begins after marketing or licensing approval is granted. In some foreign markets, prescription pharmaceutical pricing remains subject to continuing governmental control even after initial approval is granted. As a result, we or our collaborators might obtain marketing approval for a drug in a particular country, but then be subject to price regulations that delay commercial launch of the drug, possibly for lengthy time periods, and negatively impact our ability to generate revenue from the sale of the drug in that country. Adverse pricing limitations may hinder our ability to recoup our investment in one or more drug candidates, even if our drug candidates obtain marketing approval.

U.S. and foreign governments continue to propose and pass legislation designed to reduce the cost of healthcare. In the United States, we expect that there will continue to be federal and state proposals to implement similar governmental controls. In addition, recent changes in the Medicare program and increasing emphasis on managed care in the United States will continue to put pressure on pharmaceutical product pricing. For example, in 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, collectively, the Healthcare Reform Law, was enacted. The Healthcare Reform Law substantially changes the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers and significantly affects the pharmaceutical industry. Among the provisions of the Healthcare Reform Law of importance to the pharmaceutical industry are the following:

 

   

an annual, nondeductible fee on any entity that manufactures or imports certain branded prescription drugs and biologic agents, apportioned among these entities according to their market share in certain government healthcare programs;

 

   

an increase in the minimum rebates a manufacturer must pay under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to 23.1% and 13.0% of the average manufacturer price for branded and generic drugs, respectively;

 

   

expansion of healthcare fraud and abuse laws, including the False Claims Act and the Anti-Kickback Statute, new government investigative powers and enhanced penalties for non-compliance;

 

   

a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, under which manufacturers must agree to offer 50 percent point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D;

 

   

extension of manufacturers’ Medicaid rebate liability to covered drugs dispensed to individuals who are enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations;

 

   

expansion of eligibility criteria for Medicaid programs by, among other things, allowing states to offer Medicaid coverage to additional individuals and by adding new mandatory eligibility categories for certain individuals with income at or below 133% of the federal poverty level beginning in 2014, thereby potentially increasing a manufacturer’s Medicaid rebate liability;

 

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a licensure framework for follow-on biologic products;

 

   

expansion of the entities eligible for discounts under the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program;

 

   

new requirements under the federal Open Payments program and its implementing regulations;

 

   

a new requirement to annually report drug samples that manufacturers and distributors provide to physicians; and

 

   

a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee, identify priorities in, and conduct comparative clinical effectiveness research, along with funding for such research.

In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the Healthcare Reform Law was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers of up to 2% per fiscal year, starting in 2013. On March 1, 2013, the President signed an executive order implementing the 2% Medicare payment reductions, which went into effect on April 1, 2013. In January 2013, President Obama signed into law the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. These new laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which could have a material adverse effect on customers for our drugs, if approved, and, accordingly, our financial operations.

We expect that the Healthcare Reform Law, as well as other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved drug. Legislation and regulations affecting the pricing of pharmaceuticals might change before our drug candidates are approved for marketing. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government healthcare programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability or commercialize our drugs.

There can be no assurance that our drug candidates, if they are approved for sale in the United States or in other countries, will be considered medically reasonable and necessary for a specific indication, that they will be considered cost-effective by third-party payors, that coverage or an adequate level of reimbursement will be available, or that third-party payors’ reimbursement policies will not adversely affect our ability to sell our drug candidates profitably if they are approved for sale.

The markets for our drug candidates are subject to intense competition. If we are unable to compete effectively, our drug candidates may be rendered noncompetitive or obsolete.

The research, development and commercialization of new drugs is highly competitive. We will face competition with respect to all drug candidates we may develop or commercialize in the future from pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies worldwide. The key factors affecting the success of any approved product will be its indication, label, efficacy, safety profile, drug interactions, method of administration, pricing, coverage, reimbursement and level of promotional activity relative to those of competing drugs.

Furthermore, many large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies and other public and private research organizations are pursuing the development of novel drugs that target the same indications we are targeting with our research and development program. We face, and expect to continue to face, intense and increasing competition as new products enter the market and advanced technologies become available. Many of our competitors have:

 

   

significantly greater financial, technical and human resources than we have and may be better equipped to discover, develop, manufacture and commercialize drug candidates;

 

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more extensive experience in preclinical testing and clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and manufacturing and marketing pharmaceutical products;

 

   

drug candidates that have been approved or are in late-stage clinical development; and/or

 

   

collaborative arrangements in our target markets with leading companies and research institutions.

Competitive products may render our research and development program obsolete or noncompetitive before we can recover the expenses of developing and commercializing our drug candidates. Furthermore, the development of new treatment methods and/or the widespread adoption or increased utilization of any vaccine or development of other products or treatments for the diseases we are targeting could render any of our drug candidates noncompetitive, obsolete or uneconomical. If we successfully develop and obtain approval for a drug candidate, we will face competition based on the safety and effectiveness of the approved product, the timing of its entry into the market in relation to competitive products in development, the availability and cost of supply, marketing and sales capabilities, coverage, reimbursement, price, patent position and other factors. Even if we successfully develop drug candidates but those drug candidates do not achieve and maintain market acceptance, our business will not be successful.

Our drug candidates for which we intend to seek approval as biologic products may face competition sooner than anticipated.

Our drug candidates are regulated by the FDA as biologic products and we intend to seek approval for these products pursuant to the BLA pathway. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, or BPCIA, created an abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar and interchangeable biologic products. The abbreviated regulatory pathway establishes legal authority for the FDA to review and approve biosimilar biologics, including the possible designation of a biosimilar as “interchangeable” based on its similarity to an existing brand product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a biosimilar product cannot be approved by the FDA until 12 years after the original branded product was approved under a BLA. The law is complex and is still being interpreted and implemented by the FDA. As a result, its ultimate impact, implementation, and meaning are subject to uncertainty. While it is uncertain when such processes intended to implement BPCIA may be fully adopted by the FDA, any such processes could have a material adverse effect on the future commercial prospects for our biologic products.

We believe that any of our drug candidates approved as a biologic product under a BLA should qualify for the 12-year period of exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider our drug candidates to be reference products for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for generic competition sooner than anticipated. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any one of our reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biologic products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing.

We may be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, physician payment transparency, health information privacy and security, and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm, administrative burdens and diminished profits and future earnings.

If we obtain FDA approval for any of our drug candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our operations may be directly, or indirectly through our customers, subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the federal False Claims Act, which may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we sell, market and distribute any drugs for which we obtain

 

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marketing approval. In addition, we may be subject to physician payment transparency laws and patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

   

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase or recommendation of an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

 

   

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including the federal False Claims Act, which impose criminal and civil penalties, including civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government;

 

   

the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created new federal criminal statutes that impose criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

 

   

the federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, which requires manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, information related to “payments or other transfers of value” made to physicians, which is defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors, and teaching hospitals and applicable manufacturers and applicable group purchasing organizations to report annually to CMS ownership and investment interests held by the physicians and their immediate family members. Manufacturers were required to begin data collection on August 1, 2013, and to submit reports to CMS by March 31, 2014 and by the 90th day of each subsequent calendar year. CMS will commence disclosure of such information on a publicly available website by September 2014;

 

   

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act, and its implementing regulations, which impose obligations on covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates that create, receive, maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of a covered entity, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information; and

 

   

analogous state and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by non-governmental third-party payors, including private insurers; state and foreign laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers; state and foreign laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in

 

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violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, imprisonment, damages, fines and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. If any of the physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business, including our collaborators, is found not to be in compliance with applicable laws, it may be subject to criminal, civil or administrative sanctions, including exclusions from participation in government healthcare programs, which could also adversely affect our business.

If a successful product liability or clinical trial claim or series of claims is brought against us for uninsured liabilities or in excess of insured liabilities, we could incur substantial liability.

The use of our drug candidates in clinical trials and the sale of any products for which we obtain marketing approval will expose us to the risk of product liability and clinical trial liability claims. Product liability claims might be brought against us by consumers, health care providers or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our products. Clinical trial liability claims may be filed against us for damages suffered by clinical trial subjects or their families. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we could incur substantial liabilities. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:

 

   

decreased demand for any approved drug candidates;

 

   

impairment of our business reputation;

 

   

withdrawal of clinical trial participants;

 

   

costs of related litigation;

 

   

distraction of management’s attention;

 

   

substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants;

 

   

loss of revenues; and

 

   

the inability to successfully commercialize any approved drug candidates.

We currently have clinical trial liability insurance coverage for our ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial of NEOD001 with a $5.0 million annual aggregate coverage limit; however, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive, and, in the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. If and when we obtain marketing approval for any of our drug candidates, we intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products; however, we may be unable to obtain this product liability insurance on commercially reasonable terms. On occasion, large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated side effects. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our share price to decline and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could decrease our cash and adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

We rely on third parties to conduct our clinical trials, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet established deadlines for the completion of any such clinical trials.

We do not have the ability to independently conduct clinical trials for our drug candidates, and we rely on third parties, such as consultants, contract research organizations, medical institutions, and clinical investigators, to perform this function. Our reliance on these third parties for clinical development activities results in reduced control over these activities. Furthermore, these third parties may also have relationships with other entities, some of which may be our competitors. Although we have and will enter into agreements with

 

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these third parties, we will be responsible for confirming that our clinical trials are conducted in accordance with their general investigational plans and protocols. Moreover, the FDA requires us to comply with regulations and standards, commonly referred to as cGCPs, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the trial participants are adequately protected. Our reliance on third parties does not relieve us of these responsibilities and requirements. If we or any of our third party contractors fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot assure you that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials complies with cGCP regulations. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with product produced under cGMP regulations. Our failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

To date, we believe our consultants, contract research organizations and other similar entities with which we are working have performed well; however, if these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines, or comply with applicable regulations, we may be required to replace them. Although we believe that there are a number of other third-party contractors we could engage to continue these activities, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative third-party contractors or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, which may result in a delay of our planned clinical trials. Accordingly, we may be delayed in obtaining regulatory approvals for our drug candidates and may be delayed in our efforts to successfully develop our drug candidates.

In addition, our third-party contractors are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such third-party contractors, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our ongoing clinical, nonclinical and preclinical programs. If third-party contractors do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines, if they need to be replaced or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for or successfully commercialize our drug candidates. As a result, our results of operations and the commercial prospects for our drug candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.

If we do not establish additional strategic collaborations, we may have to alter our research and development plans.

Our drug research and development programs and potential commercialization of our drug candidates will require substantial additional cash to fund expenses. Our strategy includes potentially collaborating with additional leading pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies to assist us in furthering development and potential commercialization of some of our drug candidates, in some or all geographies. It may be difficult to enter into one or more of such collaborations in the future. We face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators and these collaborations are complex and time-consuming to negotiate and document. We may not be able to negotiate collaborations on acceptable terms, or at all, in which case we may have to curtail the development of a particular drug candidate, reduce or delay its development program or one or more of our other development programs, delay its potential commercialization or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development or commercialization activities on our own, we will need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we will not be able to bring our drug candidates to market and generate product revenue.

We have no manufacturing capacity and depend on a third-party manufacturer to produce our pre-clinical and clinical trial drug supplies.

We do not currently operate manufacturing facilities for pre-clinical or clinical production of any of our drug candidates. We have limited experience in drug manufacturing, and we lack the resources and the capabilities

 

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to manufacture any of our drug candidates on a clinical or commercial scale. As a result, we rely on a single third-party manufacturer to supply, store, and distribute pre-clinical and clinical supply of our drug candidates, and plan to continue to do so until we increase the number of manufacturers with whom we contract. Any performance failure on the part of our existing or future manufacturers could delay clinical development or regulatory approval of our drug candidates or commercialization of any approved products, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.

Our drug candidates require precise, high quality manufacturing. Failure by our contract manufacturer to achieve and maintain high manufacturing standards could result in patient injury or death, product recalls or withdrawals, delays or failures in testing or delivery, cost overruns, or other problems that could seriously hurt our business. Contract manufacturers may encounter difficulties involving production yields, quality control, and quality assurance. These manufacturers are subject to ongoing periodic and unannounced inspections by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign agencies to ensure strict compliance with cGMPs and other applicable government regulations and corresponding foreign standards; however, we do not have control over third-party manufacturers’ compliance with these regulations and standards.

If a contract manufacturer cannot perform as agreed, we may be required to replace it. Although we believe there are a number of potential replacements as our manufacturing processes are not manufacturer specific, we may incur added costs and delays in identifying and qualifying any such replacements because the FDA must approve any replacement manufacturer prior to manufacturing our drug candidates. Such approval would require new testing and compliance inspections. In addition, a new manufacturer would have to be educated in, or develop substantially equivalent processes for, production of our drug candidates after receipt of FDA approval.

We anticipate continued reliance on third-party manufacturers if we are successful in obtaining marketing approval from the FDA and other regulatory agencies for any of our drug candidates, and our commercialization of any of our drug candidates may be halted, delayed or made less profitable if those third parties fail to obtain such approvals, fail to provide us with sufficient quantities of drug product or fail to do so at acceptable quality levels or prices.

To date, our drug candidates have been manufactured in small quantities for preclinical and clinical testing by third-party manufacturers. If the FDA or other regulatory agencies approve any of our drug candidates for commercial sale, we expect that we would continue to rely, at least initially, on third-party manufacturers to produce commercial quantities of approved drug candidates. These manufacturers may not be able to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for any approved drug candidates in a timely or economic manner, or at all. Significant scale-up of manufacturing may require additional validation studies, which the FDA must review and approve. If third party manufacturers are unable to successfully increase the manufacturing capacity for a drug candidate, or we are unable to establish our own manufacturing capabilities, the commercial launch of any approved products may be delayed or there may be a shortage in supply, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, the facilities used by our contract manufacturers to manufacture our drug candidates must be approved by the FDA pursuant to inspections that will be conducted after we submit a BLA to the FDA. We do not control the manufacturing process of, and are completely dependent on, our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMPs, for manufacture of both active drug substances and finished drug products. If our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA or other regulatory authorities, they will not be able to secure and/or maintain regulatory approval for their manufacturing facilities. If the FDA or a comparable foreign regulatory authority does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our drug candidates or if it withdraws any such approval in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain regulatory approval for or market our drug candidates, if approved.

 

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We depend on third-party suppliers for key raw materials used in our manufacturing processes, and the loss of these third-party suppliers or their inability to supply us with adequate raw materials could harm our business.

We rely on third-party suppliers for the raw materials required for the production of our drug candidates. Our dependence on these third-party suppliers and the challenges we may face in obtaining adequate supplies of raw materials involve several risks, including limited control over pricing, availability, quality and delivery schedules. We cannot be certain that our suppliers will continue to provide us with the quantities of these raw materials that we require or satisfy our anticipated specifications and quality requirements. Any supply interruption in limited or sole sourced raw materials could materially harm our ability to manufacture our products until a new source of supply, if any, could be identified and qualified. Although we believe there are currently several other suppliers of these raw materials, we may be unable to find a sufficient alternative supply channel in a reasonable time or on commercially reasonable terms. Any performance failure on the part of our suppliers could delay the development and potential commercialization of our drug candidates, including limiting supplies necessary for clinical trials and regulatory approvals, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to adequately protect or enforce the intellectual property relating to our drug candidates our ability to successfully commercialize our drug candidates will be harmed.

Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain patent protection both in the United States and in other countries for our drug candidates. Our ability to protect our drug candidates from unauthorized or infringing use by third parties depends in substantial part on our ability to obtain and maintain valid and enforceable patents. Due to evolving legal standards relating to the patentability, validity and enforceability of patents covering pharmaceutical inventions and the scope of claims made under these patents, our ability to obtain, maintain and enforce patents is uncertain and involves complex legal and factual questions. Accordingly, rights under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection for our drug candidates or provide sufficient protection to afford us a commercial advantage against competitive products or processes.

In addition, we cannot guarantee that any patents will issue from any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us or our affiliates. Even if patents have issued or will issue, we cannot guarantee that the claims of these patents are or will be valid or enforceable or will provide us with any significant protection against competitive products or otherwise be commercially valuable to us. Patent applications in the United States are maintained in confidence for up to 18 months after their filing. In some cases, however, patent applications remain confidential in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or the USPTO, for the entire time prior to issuance as a U.S. patent. Similarly, publication of discoveries in the scientific or patent literature often lags behind actual discoveries. Consequently, we cannot be certain that we or our licensors or co-owners were the first to invent, or the first to file patent applications on, our drug candidates or their use as drugs. In the event that a third party has also filed a U.S. patent application relating to our drug candidates or a similar invention, we may have to participate in interference or derivation proceedings declared by the USPTO to determine priority of invention in the United States. The costs of these proceedings could be substantial and it is possible that our efforts would be unsuccessful, resulting in a loss of our U.S. patent position. Furthermore, we may not have identified all U.S. and foreign patents or published applications that affect our business either by blocking our ability to commercialize our drugs or by covering similar technologies.

Composition-of-matter patents on the biological or chemical active pharmaceutical ingredient are generally considered to be the strongest form of intellectual property protection for pharmaceutical products, as such patents provide protection without regard to any method of use. We cannot be certain that the claims in our patent applications covering composition-of-matter of our product candidates will be considered patentable by the USPTO and courts in the United States or by the patent offices and courts in foreign countries, nor can we be certain that the claims in our issued composition-of-matter patents will not be found invalid or unenforceable if challenged. Method-of-use patents protect the use of a product for the specified method. This type of patent does

 

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not prevent a competitor from making and marketing a product that is identical to our product for an indication that is outside the scope of the patented method. Moreover, even if competitors do not actively promote their product for our targeted indications, physicians may prescribe these products “off-label.” Although off-label prescriptions may infringe or contribute to the infringement of method-of-use patents, the practice is common and such infringement is difficult to prevent or prosecute.

Recent patent reform legislation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents. On September 16, 2011, the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act, or the Leahy-Smith Act, was signed into law. The Leahy-Smith Act includes a number of significant changes to U.S. patent law. These include provisions that affect the way patent applications are prosecuted, redefine prior art, may affect patent litigation, and switch the U.S. patent system from a “first-to-invent” system to a “first-to-file” system. Under a “first-to-file” system, assuming the other requirements for patentability are met, the first inventor to file a patent application generally will be entitled to the patent on an invention regardless of whether another inventor had made the invention earlier. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office recently developed new regulations and procedures to govern administration of the Leahy-Smith Act, and many of the substantive changes to patent law associated with the Leahy-Smith Act, and in particular, the first-to-file provisions, only became effective on March 16, 2013. Accordingly, it is not clear what, if any, impact the Leahy-Smith Act will have on the operation of our business. However, the Leahy-Smith Act and its implementation could increase the uncertainties and costs surrounding the prosecution of our patent applications and the enforcement or defense of our issued patents, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

We may be subject to a third-party preissuance submission of prior art to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or become involved in opposition, derivation, reexamination, inter partes review, post-grant review, or other patent office proceedings or litigation, in the United States or elsewhere, challenging our patent rights or the patent rights of others. An adverse determination in any such submission, proceeding or litigation could reduce the scope of, or invalidate, our patent rights, allow third parties to commercialize our technology or products and compete directly with us, without payment to us, or result in our inability to manufacture or commercialize products without infringing third party patent rights.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

The laws of some foreign jurisdictions do not protect intellectual property rights to the same extent as in the United States and many companies have encountered significant difficulties in protecting and defending such rights in foreign jurisdictions. If we encounter such difficulties in protecting or are otherwise precluded from effectively protecting our intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions, our business prospects could be substantially harmed.

We license patent rights from third-party owners. Such licenses may be subject to early termination if we fail to comply with our obligations in our licenses with third parties, which could result in the loss of rights or technology that are material to our business.

We are a party to licenses that give us rights to third-party intellectual property that is necessary or useful for our business, and we may enter into additional licenses in the future. Under these license agreements we are obligated to pay the licensor fees, which may include annual license fees, milestone payments, royalties, a percentage of revenues associated with the licensed technology and a percentage of sublicensing revenue. In addition, under certain of such agreements, we are required to diligently pursue the development of products using the licensed technology. If we fail to comply with these obligations and fail to cure our breach within a specified period of time, the licensor may have the right to terminate the applicable license, in which event we could lose valuable rights and technology that are material to our business.

If the licensor retains control of prosecution of the patents and patent applications licensed to us, we may have limited or no control over the manner in which the licensor chooses to prosecute or maintain its patents and patent applications and have limited or no right to continue to prosecute any patents or patent applications that the licensor elects to abandon.

 

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Litigation regarding patents, patent applications and other proprietary rights may be expensive and time consuming. If we are involved in such litigation, it could cause delays in bringing drug candidates to market and harm our ability to operate.

Our success will depend in part on our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. Although we are not currently aware of any litigation or other proceedings or third-party claims of intellectual property infringement related to our drug candidates, the pharmaceutical industry is characterized by extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Other parties may hold or obtain patents in the future and allege that the use of our technologies infringes these patent claims or that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. Elan is involved in litigation with the Alzheimer’s Institute of America, or AIA. While the lawsuit was dismissed with prejudice, AIA appealed the result and if the appeal is successful, AIA may institute suit against us related to our research activities. If we become involved in this matter it may distract our management and result in substantial costs, although Elan is contractually obligated pursuant to the terms of the Demerger Agreement to reimburse us for our expenses and indemnify us for any damages.

In addition, third parties may challenge or infringe upon our existing or future patents. Proceedings involving our patents or patent applications or those of others could result in adverse decisions regarding:

 

   

the patentability of our inventions relating to our drug candidates; and/or

 

   

the enforceability, validity or scope of protection offered by our patents relating to our drug candidates.

Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and divert management time and attention in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

If we are unable to avoid infringing the patent rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of the patents in court. Patent litigation is costly and time consuming. We may not have sufficient resources to bring these actions to a successful conclusion. In addition, if we do not obtain a license, develop or obtain non-infringing technology, fail to defend an infringement action successfully or have infringed patents declared invalid, we may:

 

   

incur substantial monetary damages;

 

   

encounter significant delays in bringing our drug candidates to market; and/or

 

   

be precluded from participating in the manufacture, use or sale of our drug candidates or methods of treatment requiring licenses.

If our trademarks and trade names are not adequately protected, then we may not be able to build name recognition in our markets of interest and our business may be adversely affected.

Our registered or unregistered trademarks or trade names may be challenged, infringed, circumvented or declared generic or determined to be infringing on other marks. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition by potential partners or customers in our markets of interest. Over the long term, if we are unable to establish name recognition based on our trademarks and trade names, then we may not be able to compete effectively and our business may be adversely affected.

We may be unable to adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.

We rely on trade secrets to protect our proprietary technologies, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable; however, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers, and other advisors to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information. These agreements

 

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may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. Costly and time consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position.

We may be subject to claims that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.

Many of our employees were previously employed at universities, Elan or Elan subsidiaries, or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these employees have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any such employee’s former employer. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

Risks Relating to the Separation and Distribution

If we are unable to maintain effective internal controls, our business, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We are subject to the reporting and other obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, including the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which require annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. However, our auditors will not be required to formally attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 until we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, if we continue to take advantage of the exemptions available to us through the JOBS Act.

The rules governing the standards that must be met for management to assess our internal control over financial reporting are complex and require significant documentation, testing and possible remediation to meet the detailed standards under the rules. During the course of its testing, our management may identify material weaknesses or deficiencies which may not be remedied in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. These reporting and other obligations place significant demands on our management and administrative and operational resources, including accounting resources.

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of Financial Statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Any failure to maintain effective internal controls could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.

Our historical financial information is not necessarily representative of the results we would have achieved as a separate, publicly traded company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.

Our financial results previously were included within the consolidated results of Elan; however, we were not directly subject to the reporting and other requirements of the Exchange Act until our separation from Elan in December 2012. Our historical financial information

 

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may not reflect what our results of operations, financial position and cash flows would have been had we been an independent, publicly traded company during the periods presented or what our results of operations, financial position and cash flows will be in the future. This is primarily because:

 

   

our historical financial information reflects allocations for services historically provided to us by Elan, which allocations may not reflect the costs we will incur for similar services in the future as an independent company;

 

   

subsequent to the completion of the Separation and Distribution, the cost of capital for our business may be higher than Elan’s cost of capital prior to the Separation and Distribution because Elan’s current cost of debt will likely be lower than ours; and

 

   

our historical financial information does not reflect changes that we have incurred as a result of the separation of the Prothena Business from Elan, including changes in the cost structure, personnel needs, financing and operations of the contributed business as a result of the separation from Elan and from reduced economies of scale.

We are also responsible for the additional costs associated with being an independent, public company, including costs related to corporate governance and compliance with the rules of The NASDAQ Global Select Market, or NASDAQ, and the SEC. Prior to the Separation and Distribution, the Prothena Business was operated by Elan as part of its broader corporate organization, rather than as an independent company. Elan or one of its affiliates performed various corporate functions for us, including, but not limited to, legal, treasury, accounting, auditing, risk management, information technology, human resources, corporate affairs, tax administration, certain governance functions and external reporting. Our historical financial results include allocations of corporate expenses from Elan for these and similar functions. These allocations of cash and non-cash expenses are less than the comparable expenses we have incurred thus far as a separate publicly traded company. Therefore, our Financial Statements may not be indicative of our future performance as an independent company. For additional information about our past financial performance and the basis of presentation of our Financial Statements, please see “Selected Financial Data,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our Financial Statements and the notes thereto included in our periodic reports filed with the SEC.

In addition, we incur costs and expenses, including professional fees, to comply with Irish corporate and tax laws and financial reporting requirements and costs and expenses incurred in connection with holding the meetings of our board of directors, or our Board, in Ireland. There can be no assurance that these costs will not exceed the costs historically borne by Elan and those allocated to us in connection with the separation.

The agreements we have entered into with Elan involve conflicts of interest and therefore may have materially disadvantageous terms to us.

We have entered into certain agreements with Elan, including the Demerger Agreement, Tax Matters Agreement, Transitional Services Agreement, Research and Development Services Agreement and Subscription and Registration Rights Agreement, which set forth the main terms of the separation and provide a framework for our initial relationship with Elan. These agreements may have terms that are materially disadvantageous to us or are otherwise not as favorable as those that might be negotiated between unaffiliated third parties. In July 2013, Elan announced that it had entered into a definitive agreement to be acquired by Perrigo, and in December 2013, the transaction was consummated. As a result of the acquisition of Elan by Perrigo, Elan may be less willing to collaborate with us in connection with the agreements to which we and Elan are a party and other matters.

 

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If we were treated as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, it could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders of our ordinary shares.

Although not free from doubt, based on the current market price of our ordinary shares and the value and composition of our assets, we do not believe we will be a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for our current taxable year. However, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty in several respects, and we cannot assure you the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, will not take a contrary position. A non-U.S. corporation will be considered a PFIC for any taxable year if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for such year is passive income or (2) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets during such year) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (the “asset test”). In general, the total value of our assets for purposes of the asset test will be determined based on the market price of our ordinary shares. As a result, fluctuations in the market price of our ordinary shares may cause us to become a PFIC. In addition, changes in the composition of our income or assets may cause us to become a PFIC. A separate determination must be made each taxable year as to whether we are a PFIC (after the close of each taxable year).

Relationships between certain of our executive officers and directors with our principal shareholder could adversely affect our other shareholders and/or present actual, potential or perceived conflicts of interest.

Certain of our executive officers and directors are former officers and employees of Elan and thus have professional relationships with Elan’s executive officers and directors. Our Chairman of the Board, Dr. Lars G. Ekman, is Elan’s former President of Research and Development and a former member of Elan’s board of directors. Our Chief Executive Officer and director, Dr. Dale B. Schenk, has held the position of Executive Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer for Elan. Our director, Shane Cooke, is a former director of Elan and Elan’s former Chief Financial Officer, Executive Vice President and Head of Elan Drug Technologies. Our director, Richard T. Collier, is Elan’s former Executive Vice President and General Counsel. Our Head of Corporate and Business Development and Secretary, Dr. Tara Nickerson, has held the position of Vice President and Head of Business Development for Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Elan. Our Chief Scientific Officer and Head of Research and Development, Dr. Gene Kinney, has held the position of Senior Vice President, Pharmacological Sciences for Elan. In addition, certain of our other employees and directors may have a meaningful financial interest in Perrigo as a result of their ownership of Elan ordinary shares prior to Perrigo’s acquisition of Elan in December 2013. These relationships may create, or may create the appearance of, conflicts of interest when these directors and officers face decisions that could have different implications for Perrigo and Elan than for us.

For as long as we are an emerging growth company, we will be exempt from certain reporting requirements, including those relating to accounting standards and disclosure about our executive compensation, that apply to other public companies.

In April 2012, President Obama signed into law the JOBS Act. The JOBS Act contains provisions that, among other things, relax certain reporting requirements for emerging growth companies, including certain requirements relating to accounting standards and compensation disclosure. We are classified as an emerging growth company, which is defined as a company with annual gross revenues of less than $1 billion, that has been a public reporting company for a period of less than five years, and that does not have a public float of $700 million or more in securities held by non-affiliated holders. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the end of the fiscal year in which the market value of our ordinary shares that are held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the second fiscal quarter, (ii) the end of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1 billion or more during such fiscal year, (iii) the date on which we issue

 

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more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in a three-year period or (iv) the end of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our ordinary shares pursuant to an effective registration statement filed under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

For as long as we are an emerging growth company, unlike other public companies, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” These include, but are not limited to, (i) reduced obligations with respect to the disclosure of selected financial data in registration statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, (ii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, (iii) an exception from compliance with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and (iv) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and the requirement to obtain shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

As noted above, under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We intend to take advantage of such extended transition period. Since we would then not be required to comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies, our Financial Statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of companies that comply with public company effective dates. If we were to elect to comply with these public company effective dates, such election would be irrevocable pursuant to Section 107 of the JOBS Act.

Risks Related to Our Ordinary Shares

The market price of our shares may fluctuate widely.

Our ordinary shares commenced trading on The NASDAQ Global Market on December 21, 2012 and currently trade on The NASDAQ Global Select Market. We cannot predict the prices at which our ordinary shares may trade at. The market price of our ordinary shares may fluctuate widely, depending upon many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including:

 

   

our ability to obtain financing as needed;

 

   

progress in and results from our clinical trials, including our Phase 1 and any future clinical trials of NEOD001;

 

   

our collaboration with Roche pursuant to the License Agreement to develop and commercialize PRX002, as well as any future Licensed Products targeting alpha-synuclein;

 

   

failure or delays in advancing our preclinical drug candidates or other drug candidates we may develop in the future, into clinical trials;

 

   

results of clinical trials conducted by others on drugs that would compete with our drug candidates;

 

   

issues in manufacturing our drug candidates;

 

   

regulatory developments or enforcement in the United States and foreign countries;

 

   

developments or disputes concerning patents or other proprietary rights;

 

   

introduction of technological innovations or new commercial products by our competitors;

 

   

changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts, if any, who cover our company;

 

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public concern over our drug candidates;

 

   

litigation;

 

   

future sales of our ordinary shares;

 

   

general market conditions;

 

   

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

 

   

failure of any of our drug candidates, if approved, to achieve commercial success;

 

   

economic and other external factors or other disasters or crises;

 

   

period-to-period fluctuations in our financial results;

 

   

overall fluctuations in U.S. equity markets;

 

   

our quarterly or annual results, or those of other companies in our industry;

 

   

announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions or dispositions;

 

   

the operating and share price performance of other comparable companies;

 

   

investor perception of our company and the drug development industry;

 

   

natural or environmental disasters that investors believe may affect us; or

 

   

fluctuations in the budget of federal, state and local governmental entities around the world.

These and other external factors may cause the market price and demand for our ordinary shares to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their ordinary shares and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our ordinary shares. In particular, stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our ordinary shares. In the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, some holders of that stock have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. If any of our shareholders brought a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management.

We do not anticipate paying cash dividends, and accordingly, shareholders must rely on share appreciation for any return on their investment.

We anticipate losing money for the foreseeable future and, even if we do ever turn a profit, we intend to retain future earnings, if any, for the development, operation and expansion of our business. Thus, we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Therefore, the success of an investment in our ordinary shares will depend upon appreciation in their value and in order to receive any income or realize a return on your investment, you will need to sell your Prothena ordinary shares. There can be no assurance that our ordinary shares will maintain their price or appreciate in value.

Your percentage ownership in Prothena may be diluted in the future.

As with any publicly traded company, your percentage ownership in us may be diluted in the future because of equity issuances for acquisitions, capital raising transactions or otherwise. We may need to raise

 

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additional capital in the future. If we are able to raise additional capital, we may issue equity or convertible debt instruments, which may severely dilute your ownership interest in us. In addition, we intend to continue to grant option awards to our directors, officers and employees, which would dilute your ownership stake in us. As of December 31, 2013, the number of ordinary shares authorized under our equity plan is 2,650,000.

Future sales of our ordinary shares could adversely affect the trading price of our ordinary shares.

All of our ordinary shares will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act unless the shares are “restricted securities” under the Securities Act or are owned by our “affiliates” as those terms are defined in the rules under the Securities Act. “Restricted securities” and shares held by “affiliates” may be sold in the public market if registered or if they qualify for an exemption from registration under Rule 144. Further, we have filed a registration statement to cover the shares issuable under our equity-based benefit plans.

Irish law differs from the laws in effect in the United States and may afford less protection to holders of our ordinary shares.

It may not be possible to enforce court judgments obtained in the United States against us in Ireland based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of Ireland would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained against us or our directors or officers based on the civil liabilities provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws or hear actions against us or those persons based on those laws. We have been advised that the United States currently does not have a treaty with Ireland providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters. Therefore, a final judgment for the payment of money rendered by any U.S. federal or state court based on civil liability, whether or not based solely on U.S. federal or state securities laws, would not automatically be enforceable in Ireland.

As an Irish company, we are governed by the Irish Companies Acts 1963-2013, which differ in some material respects from laws generally applicable to U.S. corporations and shareholders, including, among others, differences relating to interested director and officer transactions and shareholder lawsuits. Likewise, the duties of directors and officers of an Irish company generally are owed to the company only. Shareholders of Irish companies generally do not have a personal right of action against directors or officers of the company and may exercise such rights of action on behalf of the company only in limited circumstances. Accordingly, holders of our ordinary shares may have more difficulty protecting their interests than would holders of securities of a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction of the United States.

Irish law differs from the laws in effect in the United States with respect to defending unwanted takeover proposals and may give our board of directors less ability to control negotiations with hostile offerors.

We are subject to the Irish Takeover Panel Act, 1997, Takeover Rules, 2013, or the Irish Takeover Rules. Under the Irish Takeover Rules, our Board is not permitted to take any action that might frustrate an offer for our shares once our Board has received an approach that may lead to an offer or has reason to believe that such an offer is or may be imminent, subject to certain exceptions. Potentially frustrating actions such as (i) the issue of shares, options or convertible securities, (ii) material acquisitions or disposals, (iii) entering into contracts other than in the ordinary course of business or (iv) any action, other than seeking alternative offers, which may result in frustration

 

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of an offer, are prohibited during the course of an offer or at any earlier time during which our Board has reason to believe an offer is or may be imminent. These provisions may give our Board less ability to control negotiations with hostile offerors and protect the interests of holders of ordinary shares than would be the case for a corporation incorporated in a jurisdiction of the United States.

Transfers of our ordinary shares may be subject to Irish stamp duty.

Transfers of our shares effected by means of the transfer of book entry interests in DTC should not be subject to Irish stamp duty. However, if a shareholder holds our ordinary shares directly rather than beneficially through DTC any transfer of those shares could be subject to Irish stamp duty (currently at the rate of 1% of the higher of the price paid or the market value of the shares acquired). Payment of Irish stamp duty is generally a legal obligation of the transferee. The potential for stamp duty could adversely affect the price of your shares.

Dividends paid by us may be subject to Irish dividend withholding tax.

Dividend withholding tax (currently at a rate of 20%) may arise to the extent we decide to pay dividends in the future. A number of exemptions from dividend withholding tax exist such that shareholders resident in the U.S. and shareholders resident in other countries that have entered into a double taxation treaty with Ireland may be entitled to exemptions from dividend withholding tax subject to the completion of certain dividend withholding tax declaration forms.

Dividends received by Irish residents and certain other shareholders may be subject to Irish income tax.

Shareholders entitled to an exemption from Irish dividend withholding tax on any dividends received from us will not be subject to Irish income tax in respect of those dividends, unless they have some connection with Ireland other than their shareholding (for example, they are resident in Ireland). Shareholders who receive dividends subject to Irish dividend withholding tax will generally have no further liability to Irish income tax on those dividends.

Prothena shares, received by means of a gift or inheritance could be subject to Irish capital acquisitions tax.

Irish capital acquisitions tax (CAT) could apply to a gift or inheritance of our shares irrespective of the place of residence, ordinary residence or domicile of the parties. This is because our shares will be regarded as property situated in Ireland. The person who receives the gift or inheritance has primary liability for CAT. Gifts and inheritances passing between spouses are exempt from CAT. At the date hereof, children have a tax-free threshold of €225,000 in respect of taxable gifts or inheritances received from their parents. It is recommended that each shareholder consult his or her own tax advisor as to the tax consequences of holding our shares or receiving dividends from us.

 

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